Welcome to Inclusive Education.


Deterring and responding to bullying behaviour

http://inclusive.tki.org.nz/guides/deterring-and-responding-to-bullying-behaviour/

Some students are at greater risk of being bullied than others. Many factors, such as differences in learning support needs, physical vulnerability, social skill challenges, and intolerant social environments can contribute to this increased risk.

This guide is a companion resource to Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools. It supports schools to take a more inclusive whole-school and community approach to reducing bullying behaviours.

Understanding bullying behaviour

Bullying is one particular form of aggressive behaviour and can be covert or overt in nature. A school-wide approach to preventing bullying is more effective than an individualised approach.

Pasifika students and their families from Oamaru talk about what bullying behaviour means to them.

Source: Fale Pasifika O Aoraki (NZ)

No captions or transcript available

Suggestions and resources

Types of bullying behaviour (image)
A diagram explaining covert and overt bullying behaviour
Covert and overt bullying behaviour in the physical and digital world

Bullying behaviour can be overt (direct and easily observed) or covert (indirect and less easily observed).

Bullying rarely occurs in front of adults, therefore we must take all allegations of bullying seriously.

Source: Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools

Types of bullying behaviour
Influence of peers (video)
Bullying behaviour is not an individual action

This video from Spain illustrates how bullying is influenced by the actions and values of peer groups.

Consider viewing it as a discussion starter with students and/or colleagues.

No captions or transcript available

Source: Milagro Films (Spain)

Influence of peers
Characteristics of bullying behaviour

Widely-accepted definitions of bullying behaviour emphasise the following four characteristics:

  • It is deliberate – there is an intention to cause physical and/or psychological pain or discomfort to another person.
  • It involves a power imbalance – there is an actual or perceived unequal relationship between the target and the initiator that may be based on physical size, age, gender, social status, or digital capability and access. 
  • It has an element of repetition – bullying behaviour is usually repeated over time, with the threat of further incidents leading to fear and anxiety. 
  • It is harmful – there is short- or long-term physical or psychological harm to the target person due to coercion or intimidation.

Research suggests that students who are targets of bullying behaviours are likely to become initiators of bullying behaviours.

Source: EU Kids Online 2014

Characteristics of bullying behaviour
Student perspectives (video)
Students describe bullying

Students from the PACER Center (US) talk about what bullying means to them.

The PACER centre (Parent Advocacy Coalition for Educational Rights) is a parent-led organisation committed to expanding opportunities and enhancing the quality of life for children and young adults with disabilities and their families.

No captions or transcript available

Source: Pacer Center (US)

Student perspectives
Common terms

Develop a shared understanding of common terms relating to bullying behaviours to inform school-wide policy development 

  • Deliberately harmful behaviour, repeated over a period of time by a person or group, targeted at a less powerful person. 
  • A deliberate misuse of power that makes the victim feel afraid and uncomfortable.
  • Also called peer victimisation - repeated exposure to negative actions by one or more peers, causing discomfort and involving a power imbalance between the aggressor and victim.
  • Forms of bullying include physical violence, verbal and emotional abuse, damage to property, and technological/cyber bullying.
  • Cyber-bullying involves posting destructive text or images online via personal websites, blogs, social networking sites, email messages, discussion groups, message boards, online personal polling sites, chat services, or instant messaging (IM); or on mobile phones using short message service (SMS) or multimedia messaging service (MMS). 
  • Relational aggression, a form of peer victimisation. It includes behaviours that harm others through damage (or threat of damage) to peer relationships or feelings of acceptance, friendship, or group inclusion. 

Source: Adapted from Responsive Schools

Common terms

Resources and downloads

What is bullying?

This downloadable factsheet can be used by schools, whānau and the wider community to promote a common understanding of what bullying is.

Defining Bullying

This website offers resources and support for students, teachers, school leaders, whānau and wider community in defining bullying, preventing bullying and approaches to use when bullying is happening.

Responsive schools

This document summarises the key messages from the Office of the Children’s Commissioner’s inquiry into school safety.

Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools

This guide was compiled to support schools to create safe and positive learning environments that help to prevent bullying and to provide practical advice on what to do when bullying occurs. It includes a section on whole-school approaches.

EU Kids Online

This resource, from the European Union website, coordinates and stimulates investigation into the way children use new media, with a particular focus on evidence about the conditions that shape online risk and safety.

Five minute film festival: Preventing bullying

These are a set of short videos that promote awareness about bullying. They can be used as prompts for class and group discussions about bullying issues.

Overview of cyberbullying in NZ (NZ) (video)
Cyberbullying in New Zealand: The facts

Dr John Fenaughty discusses cyberbullying in New Zealand.

No captions or transcript available

Source: Netsafe (NZ)

Overview of cyberbullying in NZ (NZ)
What is cyberbullying?

Cyberbullying is like any other form of bullying.

However, bullying through digital technology can:

  • include large numbers of bystanders
  • occur at any time of the day or night
  • leave a permanent record (for example, photos posted on the internet).

Cyberbullying may occur along with bullying in the physical environment. One study found that children who were bullied offline were 15 times more likely to be bullied online.

Source: Comparing children’s online opportunities and risks across Europe: European research on cultural, contextual and risk issues in children’s safe use of the internet and new media (2006–2009)

What is cyberbullying?
Opportunities and challenges (image)
down syndrome girl on laptop again
The place of technologies

Digital technology is a central part of many young people’s lives.

Its use brings both opportunities and challenges.

Source: CDAC

Opportunities and challenges
Examples of cyberbullying
  1. Sending abusive texts or emails.

  2. Making a student the target of an "in" joke in a way that the student is unaware of.

  3. Posting negative or inappropriate messages, or images on social networking sites.

  4. Taking and sharing private images, including sexual images.

  5. Forming bullying groups on social networking sites.

  6. Assuming the identity of a target online and representing them in a way that may be harmful to them or cause them distress.

  7. Online social exclusion.

Examples of cyberbullying
The digital challenges model

To further understand cyberbullying, it needs to be considered as part of a wider interconnected group of digital challenges

  1. Cybersafety: Involves conduct or behavioural concerns. Examples include cyberbullying, smear campaigns, accessing inappropriate content, creating spoof websites or sexting.

  2. Cybercrime: Involves illegal activity. Examples include sexual offending, accessing objectionable content, or online fraud.

  3. Cybersecurity: Involves unauthorised access or attacks on a computer system. Examples include hacking into someone’s social media service account, launching a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, or loading malware onto a laptop.

Source: Digital technology: Safe and responsible use in schools

The digital challenges model

Resources and downloads

Digital technology: Safe and responsible use in schools

This guide provides information about the safe and responsible use and management of digital technology for boards of trustees, principals and staff. It outlines key aspects of the context surrounding the effective management of digital technology in schools and kura. Developed by Netsafe in partnership with the Ministry of Education.

Cyberbullying advice and information

This Netsafe site provides information for young people, teachers, and parents about cyberbullying.

Cyberbullying and children and young people with SEN and disabilities: Guidance for teachers and other professionals

This module was developed to reduce the incidence and impact of bullying young people with additional needs in British schools.

STAR Toolkit: Advice

This resource aims to equip, enable, and empower educators to support their learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when they are online.

Cyberbullying advice and information NZSL

This video is a New Zealand Sign Language translation of Netsafe’s brochure about cyberbullying and advice for young people.

Defining roles

Bullying behaviour involves three parties:

  1. initiators (those doing the bullying)

  2. targets (those being bullied)

  3. bystanders (those who witness the bullying)

Defining roles
Peer pressure (image)
Screen Shot 2015 04 20 at 5.18.09 pm
The role of the bystander

This anti bullying video highlights the impact of bullying on students with disabilities and those who are perceived as different.

It focuses on the role of the bystander and the target's vulnerability to peer pressure.

Source: Take One Productions (UK) Ltd

Peer pressure
Three types of bystanders

Bystanders (witnesses to bullying behaviour) can have a powerful effect on encouraging or inhibiting bullying behaviour.

There are three main types of bystanders:

  1. followers (assistants), who do not initiate, but take an active role in the bullying behaviour

  2. supporters (reinforcers), who support the bullying behaviour overtly or covertly (for example, by turning a blind eye), but who do not take an active role in the bullying behaviour

  3. defenders, who dislike the bullying and try to help the target by intervening, getting teacher support (using safe telling), or providing direct support to the target.

Three types of bystanders
Student roles in bullying situations (image)
Diagram Participant roles in bullying
Participant roles in bullying

A proportional representation of the roles typically played by students involved in bullying incidents.

Source: Kiva, cited in Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools

Student roles in bullying situations
Seeking adult support (NZ) (video)
At a distance

This video, set in a primary school, explores how a bystander can help the bullied target by getting adult support (using safe telling).

No captions or transcript available

Source: ROLLTAPEPRODSLTD (NZ)

Seeking adult support (NZ)

Resources and downloads

Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools

This guide was compiled to support schools to create safe and positive learning environments that help to prevent bullying and to provide practical advice on what to do when bullying occurs. It includes a section on whole-school approaches.

Wellbeing at school: Building a safe and caring school climate that deters bullying

This booklet is a summary of an extensive review of research and other literature undertaken to guide the development of the Wellbeing@School website.

Bullying behaviour in NZ

In a New Zealand study, nine of the eleven students with disabilities interviewed described being bullied when asked about their experiences at school.

“Picking on” included exclusion from peer groups, being called names, being hit or kicked, and having property taken or damaged.

Source: (MacArthur & Gaffney, 2001), cited in Springboards 2 Practice: Enhancing effective practice in education

Bullying behaviour in NZ
High prevalence of bullying behaviour

Sixty percent of students with disabilities reported being bullied, compared to 25% of the general student population.

Source: Walk a mile in their shoes: Bullying and the special needs child, cited in British Journal of Learning Support (2008)
High prevalence of bullying behaviour
To and from school (image)
Boy on bus
Travelling to school

“Students report that bullying behaviour frequently occurs when they are walking or travelling by public transport to and from school.”

MacArthur & Gaffney, 2001, cited in Springboards 2 Practice: Enhancing effective practice in education

Source: Woodleywonderworks

To and from school
The risks of highlighting difference

Children and parents describe structural arrangements in the school or classroom that highlight difference as one thing that contributes to students being seen as different and bullied.

Source: Springboards 2 Practice: Enhancing effective practice in education. MacArthur & Gaffney, 2001
The risks of highlighting difference
Unrecognised bullying behaviour

Becky’s teacher was not able to see the boys’ role in bullying Becky. Instead it was assumed that it was some characteristic of Becky’s or her disability that caused her to be bullied and he recommended that Becky be referred to an educational psychologist for conflict management strategies. The boys’ behaviour went unquestioned in this school. Becky did not make the same mistake and saw the boys’ behaviour as unacceptable.

Source: Springboards 2 Practice: Enhancing effective practice in education. Davis & Watson, 2001, (page 675)
Unrecognised bullying behaviour

Resources and downloads

Student perception survey

This is a bullying prevention tool from US PBIS: Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

Springboards 2 Practice: Bullying

How can we combat bullying in schools?

The impact of bullying behaviour (video)
Bully (official trailer)

A powerful documentary that examines the impact of bullying on students with autism.

Useful associated resources include: 

No captions or transcript available

Source: The Weinstein Company (US)

The impact of bullying behaviour
A student’s experience

I’ve been made fun of ever since I can remember and they still do it today. Yah I’ve gotten bigger, but it still makes me mad when they do that. See, I don’t make fun of anybody. I tease people. I don’t really make fun of them about their learning habits cause I know how it feels to be put down a lot and I don’t like that.

Source: Lovitt, Plavins & Cushing, (1999), cited in Springboards 2 Practice: Enhancing effective practice in education
A student’s experience
Limiting achievement (image)
still 2 from Bully by Simon Brand
Increased vulnerability

Bullying behaviour compromises the ability of students to learn and achieve in school.

Students with disabilities and those accessing learning support can be more vulnerable to bullying than other students.

Source: Simon Brand

Limiting achievement
Risks to wellbeing

Bullying behaviour has detrimental effects on students’ health and wellbeing

  1. Students who are targets of bullying behaviour are more likely to experience symptoms of depression and anxiety and to avoid going to school.

  2. Bullying behaviour that is particularly sustained, severe, or intense may be linked to serious physical and mental health outcomes, including increased risk of suicide.

  3. Verbal and social/relational bullying can be just as harmful as physical bullying.

  4. Addressing bullying behaviour effectively has benefits for the future of both the targets and the initiators of bullying.

Risks to wellbeing
Luke’s story

Luke was sent out of his Year 9 class on several occasions because he was “wound up”, but often these events were preceded by bullying out in the hallway or school grounds. He used his school’s official systems to challenge bullying when it happened and said that, while these could be effective, he was not always believed.

Adam described how some teachers did not always understand his impairment, and he was very upset that one of his teachers would shout at him whenever he did something incorrectly.

Source: Learning better together: Working towards inclusive education in New Zealand schools
Luke’s story

Resources and downloads

Five minute film festival: Preventing bullying

These are a set of short videos that promote awareness about bullying. They can be used as prompts for class and group discussions about bullying issues.

DfE Anti Bullying: What Happened To You?

This video developed by the Department for Education (DfE) in the UK is about the effects of bullying on people with disabilities and ask victims of bullying what their message to bystanders is.

Back to top

Creating safe and positive school environments

Schools need to create safe social and physical environments to prevent bullying behaviours.

When bullying prevention is regarded as a learning opportunity, everyone develops their understanding of bullying behaviour and their competencies to address it.

Build students' understanding of diversity by introducing them to peers that may experience learning in different ways to them. 

Source: David Barnes (UK)

No captions or transcript available

Suggestions and resources

Planning for all students

Effective bullying prevention programmes are designed from the outset to specifically consider the learning needs, preferences and characteristics of all students.

Consider how you will develop and sustain:

  • an ongoing commitment to, and focus on, fostering a positive, inclusive, and respectful school environment that values diversity
  • fine-grained data systems to collect useful information
  • efficient progress-monitoring tools
  • skilled and competent staff with expertise in inclusive practices
  • student-to-student and tuakana-tēina approaches
  • ongoing and embedded professional learning and development for all staff, supported by the inclusive practice team
  • formal coaching and coordination support, with facilitators experienced in inclusive practices
  • systems to sustain meaningful outcomes, along with effective implementation
  • effective community connections with parents and whānau of all students, relevant community advocacy and disability agencies, and Ministry of Education specialists
  • engaging inclusive learning opportunities.
Planning for all students
Research findings

A summary of research findings

  • Real change happens when students, staff, parents and whānau, and the community share responsibility for making their school a respectful and inclusive environment.
  • Strategies to reduce bullying are most effective when they are part of a wider focus on creating a positive climate that is inclusive and supports students to learn.
  • Effective approaches address different aspects of school life including, for example, creating a climate where diversity is respected.
  • Whole-school approaches should also extend into the local community by involving local sports groups and youth organisations, and ensuring they know about and support the school’s strategies and approaches to bullying.
Research findings
Partnership with students and families

A safe, positive, physical and emotional school environment is important for students’ achievement and well-being and enables all students to be included.

There is good evidence of reduced student-reported bullying when schools review and revise their policies and culture [in partnership with all members of their community]. Evidence also suggests that effort has to be sustained or bullying recurs.

Source: Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools, p 25. Ministry of Education
Partnership with students and families
Building a caring community

The research strongly suggests that students’ social relationships at school will be supported when there are changes at the classroom level, but most importantly, when there are systemic changes which focus on the school as a caring community.

Source: Allan, 2003; Grenot-Sheyer, Fisher & Staub, 2001; Staub, 1998, cited in Springboards 2 Practice: Enhancing effective practice in education
Building a caring community
Impact of teachers’ attitudes (image)
Maori succeeding as Maori 1
Model respectful interactions

One of the most powerful messages teachers can send students is to model respectful interactions, through their actions, tone of voice, words, and gestures.

Source: Enabling e-Learning

Impact of teachers’ attitudes

Resources and downloads

Wellbeing at school: Building a safe and caring school climate that deters bullying

This booklet is a summary of an extensive review of research and other literature undertaken to guide the development of the Wellbeing@School website.

Digital technology: Safe and responsible use in schools

This guide provides information about the safe and responsible use and management of digital technology for boards of trustees, principals and staff. It outlines key aspects of the context surrounding the effective management of digital technology in schools and kura. Developed by Netsafe in partnership with the Ministry of Education.

Wellbeing at school – A glossary of common terms and abbreviations

This glossary supports the Wellbeing@School website.

Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools

This guide was compiled to support schools to create safe and positive learning environments that help to prevent bullying and to provide practical advice on what to do when bullying occurs. It includes a section on whole-school approaches.

Bullying: Find out what constitutes bullying

A resource about bullying behaviour from the Youthline website.

Education change management – PPTA toolkit: Advice on effective education change management

This toolkit includes principles and strategies for implementing successful change in schools.

Iterative Best Evidence Synthesis (BES) resources to help counter bullying in educational practice

This resource lists a range of resources to counter bullying behaviour in schools.

Bullying prevention and response portal of the PB4L website

This site contains practical advice for schools on how to prevent bullying behaviour and respond effectively when it occurs.

Bullying

Information from the Ministry of Education for parents and whānau about bullying behaviour.

Kia kaha: An anti-bullying programme for New Zealand schools

Kia Kaha is a comprehensive anti-bullying programme in which children and young people learn and apply a range of safe practices that they can use when interacting with others.

Wellbeing for success: a resource for schools

This Education Review Office (ERO) resource has been developed to help schools evaluate and improve student well-being. It highlights the need for systems, people, and initiatives to respond to wellbeing concerns for students who need additional support.

Selecting a programme

When selecting a programme or approach to support bullying prevention, consider how it will be inclusively implemented to meet the needs of all students.

For more information on each programme, explore the resources section below.

Selecting a programme
PB4L (NZ) (video)
School-wide introduction video

New Zealand teachers talk about their experiences of applying the Positive Behaviour for Learning (PB4L) School-Wide framework in their schools.

No captions or transcript available

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

PB4L (NZ)
PB4L School-Wide

The Positive Behaviour for Learning School-Wide framework (PB4L School-Wide) looks at behaviour and learning from a whole-of-school perspective, as well from that of an individual student. The framework is based on international evidence.

The PB4L School-Wide website contains practical advice for schools on how to prevent bullying and respond effectively when it occurs. The framework can be tailored to your school’s environment and cultural needs. 

PB4L School-Wide
Wellbeing
@School

The Wellbeing@School website is designed to support schools to engage with the whole school community in a self-review process. There are two toolkits on the site.

The website provides access to practical evidence-based tools, resources, and services, a five-step self-review process, and information about how to get started.

Wellbeing
@School

Resources and downloads

Kia kaha: An anti-bullying programme for New Zealand schools

Kia Kaha is a comprehensive anti-bullying programme in which children and young people learn and apply a range of safe practices that they can use when interacting with others.

PB4L: School-wide

This is a framework based on international evidence that supports schools to build a culture based on positive behaviour and learning.

Confident kids

Confident kids provides a range of learning activities for students in years 0–8. The activities allow students to practise safety skills in their interactions with people. The safety skills are based on key messages described in five posters.

PB4L Restorative practice

PB4L Restorative practice is based on a set of best practice tools and techniques to support a consistent and sustainable approach to managing positive, respectful relationships within the school.

Sticks 'n Stones Snapshot 1 - Cyberbullying - What's the Big Deal?

ticks 'n Stones is a teenage led programme based in Central Otago committed to taking positive action online. There are 3 videos in this series: What is cyberbullying and the part in plays in our lives, How Sticks ‘n Stones works and How to get your own group started.

Bullying - Not a normal part of growing up: Advice for adults

A PDF to support parents in understanding what bullying is and how they can support if their child is experiencing in online cyberbullying

Cyberbullying

This Bullyingfree New Zealand site provides information for young people, teachers, and parents about cyberbullying.

Building students’ understanding (image)
Dancer with down syndrome
Valuing diversity

Take opportunities to expand students’ thinking and build understanding.

Introduce students to speakers, athletes, performers, and cultural groups who can present diverse perspectives and share stories about valuing diversity.

Source: Stop Gap Dance Company

Building students’ understanding
Raising students’ awareness

Consider how you can consistently and explicitly reinforce your whole-school commitment to students’ rights in ways that have relevance and meaning. Students’ rights include:

  1. the right to personal security and protection from physical, emotional, and sexual harassment or abuse

  2. the right to be treated with respect and dignity

  3. the right to be disciplined in positive ways that are consistent with human dignity

  4. the right to express their views and have a say in matters that affect them

  5. the right to be free from discrimination

  6. the right to privacy

  7. the right to education.

Raising students’ awareness
Questions to consider

Consider all students when planning learning activities and school events

  1. Do all students have equitable access to leadership positions and positions of responsibility within our school?

  2. When gathering the opinions and ideas of all students, do we offer students multiple ways that work for them to share their views?

  3. Have we invited all students to tell us what an inclusive culture would look like, sound like, and feel like to them?

  4. How do we involve and seek the perspectives of the parents and whānau of all students as we shape our inclusive culture?

  5. How are we drawing on the expertise of past students?

  6. How do we plan whole-school or special events (school balls, sports days, camps) to ensure that the aspirations and needs of all students are equitably met?

Questions to consider
Planning for learner diversity (image)
3 principles of UDL based on the work of CAST Center of Applied Special Technologies
A useful approach

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) helps teachers plan for learner diversity.

Students can also use the language of UDL to identify what will support them in their learning.

Visit the UDL guide for more information.

Source: Adapted from CAST UDL

Planning for learner diversity
The impact of high expectations (NZ) (video)
Success is supported by high expectations

Past student and deputy head boy, Matt Frost, reflects on how his school supported his interests and maintained high expectations of his participation and achievement.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: Te Toi Tupu (NZ)

The impact of high expectations (NZ)

Resources and downloads

Education for All

This video, from the Ministry of Education, looks at how a number of New Zealand schools have worked collaboratively within their communities to meet the diverse needs of the students. The educators and families involved talk about their journeys and reflect on what they continue to learn.

Leadership in the development of inclusive school communities

An overview in Leading Lights magazine, Edition 3, 2013, of the research of Dr Jude McArthur and others into the experiences of young people with additional learning needs in schools. Key themes are connected to what school leaders can do to develop their schools as inclusive communities.

Learning better together: Working towards inclusive education in New Zealand schools

This booklet published by the IHC outlines how inclusive education can work in practice in our schools. It gives specific guidance to schools on how to achieve better learning for all students in classrooms.

Learning better together research DVD

This video outlines aspirations for school communities for the inclusion of all students in their schools.

FAQs on schooling for disabled children and young people

New Zealand’s Inclusive Education Action Group has developed this list of questions and answers about schooling for students with additional needs.

Mapping bully zones (video)
Students map the bully zones to create a safer school

Consider adopting this idea, developed at a US high school where students mapped their school, identifying spaces where bullying behaviour takes place.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: The Working Group (US)

Mapping bully zones
Settings for bullying behaviour

Bullying behaviour occurs in a range of settings, both visible and hidden

It can occur in areas such as:

  1. hallways and walkways between buildings

  2. toilets

  3. classrooms

  4. meeting places such as school assembly halls or canteens

  5. the playground

  6. the wider school grounds – for example, at the school gates, on sports fields, and on school buses

  7. text messages and online environments.

Settings for bullying behaviour
Minimising and repurposing bullying zones

Adjusting the school’s physical environment can be a factor in reducing bullying behaviour

For example, ensuring that areas are easily accessible, well lit, and regularly supervised/monitored helps to reduce the likelihood of bullying behaviour occurring in the physical environment, including on the way to and from school and on the school bus.

The atmosphere and climate set within a school, and the expectations of student safety and inclusion will ensure that students know and understand what is and is not acceptable behaviour.

Minimising and repurposing bullying zones
Questions for reflection

Identify areas of the school that may feel unsafe for some students and consider

  1. What steps could we take to improve our school’s physical safety?

  2. Are there areas in the school where our students feel unsafe or where they would like to feel more safe? Have students map or photograph these places.

  3. How can we repurpose bullying “hot spots” while maintaining their function? An example could be transforming a walkway into an exhibition space.

  4. Are break-times well managed? Are students active and able to take part in a range of activities of their choice?

  5. Do we offer quiet or down time spaces for students?

Questions for reflection
Fale Pasifika O Aoraki (NZ) (video)
A community takes action together

Fale Pasifika O Aoraki is working with other local agencies to enable parents to contribute to and actively take part in learning about bullying prevention.

A key feature of the project is the engagement of children, and using their voices in messaging for adults.

No captions or transcript available

Source: Fale Pasifika O Aoraki (NZ)

Fale Pasifika O Aoraki (NZ)

Resources and downloads

Cybersafety for students with ASD

This resource from the UK organisation, Child Net, advises teachers and parents of the risks that students with ASD may face when using the internet.

Back to top

Maximising teaching and learning opportunities

Support students to investigate, plan, design and implement bullying prevention approaches inside the curriculum in partnership with the wider community. Connect and build skills across multiple learning areas in a project-based, collaborative way.

Consider this "bully hotspots" mapping activity, developed within a US high school, as a learning activity that could be included across a range of learning areas, such as social studies, health, mathematics, and geography.

Source: The Working Group (US)

Closed captioning available in player

Suggestions and resources

Utilising curriculum opportunities

Explore the curriculum to determine areas where bullying prevention strategies could be taught and reinforced

Areas could include:

  • the key competencies: managing self, relating to others, and participating and contributing
  • health and physical education: the relationships with other people and the healthy communities and environment strands 
  • community engagement principle: using digital technologies to participate in communities beyond the classroom
  • future focus principle: digital literacy and digital citizenship.
Utilising curriculum opportunities
Provoking discussion (video)
Bullying

This short wordless video is a useful prompt for discussions about students’ rights.

It could be used in media studies, as a prompt for writing, or to promote discussion in social studies or health.

No captions or transcript available

Source: Milagro Films (Spain)

Provoking discussion
Using role play (video)
Using curriculum opportunities to discuss bullying behaviours

At Shaw High School in Ohio older students mentor younger students about how to be a positive bystander or upstander when faced with bullying and intolerant acts.

No captions or transcript available

Source: The Working Group (US)

Using role play
Supporting student agency (video)
Students discuss inclusion and diversity

US students film a school-wide student forum about what young people can do to stand up to intolerance.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: The Working Group (US)

Supporting student agency
Supporting social skills

Consider the following programmes and initiatives to support students’ social skills development and their understanding of difference and diversity.

Supporting social skills

Resources and downloads

Five minute film festival: Preventing bullying

These are a set of short videos that promote awareness about bullying. They can be used as prompts for class and group discussions about bullying issues.

Digital technology: Safe and responsible use in schools

This guide provides information about the safe and responsible use and management of digital technology for boards of trustees, principals and staff. It outlines key aspects of the context surrounding the effective management of digital technology in schools and kura. Developed by Netsafe in partnership with the Ministry of Education.

Digital Citizenship in New Zealand Schools: Overview

This guide from Netsafe is about giving students the skills, knowledge, and confidence to maximise the opportunities available through the effective use of technology.

Students develop resources (image)
PB4L mentor
Utilising technologies

These videos demonstrate how students identify and promote key aspects of positive behaviour.

Source: Ngaruawahia High School

Students develop resources
Using graphics and symbols (image)
A graphic about opening emails from strangers
Supporting understanding

Design resources and materials with all students in mind.

Use images and graphics to support text, and captions to support video.

Source: Childnet International

Using graphics and symbols
Finding out if students feel safe

The best way to find out how safe students feel in school is to ask them directly.

Anonymous surveys can be useful, but they may not be an effective communication tool for some students.

Consider using:

  • surveys supported by simple graphics or symbols
  • matching activities, where students are presented with a range of cartoon images of a student being bullied and are asked to identify those scenarios they have experienced or seen happening
  • role plays
  • video, including animated video, to tell personal stories
  • a continuum of smiley to sad faces for students to indicate how safe they feel during different parts of the school day (including travelling to and from school, when using their mobile phones, and online after school).
Finding out if students feel safe

Resources and downloads

STAR Toolkit: SAFE

This resource provides practical advice and teaching activities to help young people with ASD differentiate between what information is OK to share online, and what information is not OK to share.

PB4L: School-wide

This is a framework based on international evidence that supports schools to build a culture based on positive behaviour and learning.

Bullying and harassment prevention in positive behavior support: Expect respect

This guide provides a series of lessons and recommendations for positive behaviour developed for intermediate and secondary school students.

Cybersafety for students with ASD

This resource from the UK organisation, Child Net, advises teachers and parents of the risks that students with ASD may face when using the internet.

Wellbeing@School

The W@S website supports schools to engage with the whole school community in a self-review process to promote a safe and caring school climate.

Respectful online communication

In order to highlight what disrespectful behaviours can look like online, discuss with students:

  • how they communicate with others online and what they think being respectful means
  • the language they use (for example, the use of “please” and “thank you”, and not swearing)
  • how cyberbullies may behave:
    • taunting or making fun of someone
    • writing mean or threatening messages
    • writing lies about people
    • posting pictures or videos that show someone in a negative light
    • being a player in an online game who aggravates others, doesn’t follow the rules, or who strategically ignores particular players and encourages others to do so).

Such discussions can help your students to clarify their ideas about how they should behave towards others online.

Source: Childnet STAR Toolkit

Respectful online communication
Varying approaches

Recommended approaches for teaching about cyberbullying

  • Link teaching about internet safety to wider learning and teaching about staying safe. 
  • Support students’ understanding of how to communicate appropriately online. 
  • Ensure that cyberbullying is actively talked about. Make information available in a variety of formats, so that it can be accessed and understood by every student.
  • Provide real-life examples so that students are more likely to recognise bullying of themselves or of others, or to understand when their own actions could be construed as bullying.
  • Build the topic of bullying and cyberbullying into everyday school conversations so that students have opportunities to talk about any issues they have.

Source: Cyberbullying and children and young people with SEN and disabilities: Guidance for teachers and other professionals

Varying approaches
Developing digital citizenship

To support students to become confident, capable digital citizens, schools need to consider a range of potential risks.

  1. Students with ASD may take information literally and not be able to read the context or social cues in online environments.

  2. Some students may find the use of emoticons, the language of texting, or technical terms confusing.

  3. Students with Down Syndrome are often very trusting and may not recognise when they are being bullied.

  4. Students with ASD may be misunderstood online as being abrupt or confrontative.

  5. Some students may not appreciate how their online behaviour may be seen by someone else as bullying.

Source: Adapted from Childnet International

Developing digital citizenship
Using visuals for understanding (image)
Digital citizenship http www.childnet.com ufiles flash accepting.pdf1
Using graphics to support understanding

Design resources with all the students in mind.

Use images and graphics to support text, and captions to support video.

Source: Childnet International

Using visuals for understanding

Resources and downloads

Digital technology: Safe and responsible use in schools

This guide provides information about the safe and responsible use and management of digital technology for boards of trustees, principals and staff. It outlines key aspects of the context surrounding the effective management of digital technology in schools and kura. Developed by Netsafe in partnership with the Ministry of Education.

Cyberbullying advice and information

This Netsafe site provides information for young people, teachers, and parents about cyberbullying.

Cyberbullying advice and information NZSL

This video is a New Zealand Sign Language translation of Netsafe’s brochure about cyberbullying and advice for young people.

Cyberbullying and children and young people with SEN and disabilities: Guidance for teachers and other professionals

This module was developed to reduce the incidence and impact of bullying young people with additional needs in British schools.

STAR Toolkit: Advice

This resource aims to equip, enable, and empower educators to support their learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when they are online.

STAR Toolkit: RESPECT

Practical advice and teaching activities to support young people with ASD to develop positive social relationships in online environments.

STAR Toolkit: TRUST

This resource provides practical advice and teaching activities to help young people with ASD to critically evaluate information they find online.

STAR Toolkit: SAFE

This resource provides practical advice and teaching activities to help young people with ASD differentiate between what information is OK to share online, and what information is not OK to share.

Activities from the STAR Toolkit

These customisable activities have been devised to help students to understand the e-safety messages covered in the STAR Toolkit, an online safety resource that offers practical advice and teaching activities to help secondary schools explore internet safety with young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

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Developing school-wide bullying prevention policies and processes

Bullying prevention and response strategies should be inclusive of, and apply to, every student.

Becoming more inclusive is a matter of thinking and talking; reviewing and refining practice; and making attempts to develop a more inclusive culture.

Source: Muijs et al, 2011 (page 92). Collaboration and Networking in Education

Suggestions and resources

Meeting legal expectations

Bullying behaviour occurs in all schools, whether or not they are aware of it. There is no room for complacency.

  1. All schools are required to provide a safe physical and emotional environment for students – The National Administration Guidelines NAG 5(i)–NAG 5(iv).

  2. All schools should have a policy that defines bullying and sets out how the school community will address it.

  3. A school’s policy will need to be reviewed regularly to ensure its ongoing effectiveness.

Meeting legal expectations
Policy and legislation

Legislation and policy supports the rights of all students to a safe educational environment

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCROC):

  • Article 19: Right to protection from all forms of violence
  • Article 28: Right to education that develops respect for children’s human rights, identity, and democracy
  • Article 29: Children’s education must be delivered in a spirit of peace, clearly anticipating non-violent and wholly supportive places of learning.

The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights:

  • requires education to demonstrate respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms
  • education experiences should be offered in situations and environments that are consistent with human dignity.

The Treaty of Waitangi:

  • articles reflect the concept of turangawaewae, the right to belong, which is consistent with New Zealand’s philosophy of inclusive education within the school context.

New Zealand Teachers Council Code of Ethics:

  • places an ethical obligation on registered teachers to promote the physical, emotional, social, intellectual, and spiritual well-being of learners.
Policy and legislation
Unlawful discrimination (image)
Bullying
Timely, effective response

If it is alleged a school has responded inadequately to a complaint of bullying based on one of the grounds of unlawful discrimination in the Human Rights Act 1993 (race, sexual orientation, or disability), a complaint of unlawful discrimination may be progressed.

Source: beboehmer

Unlawful discrimination
Questions for school leaders

Consider these questions

  1. Are we enabling all students to understand their rights and responsibilities so that they can treat others and themselves with respect?

  2. How does our school value diversity and ensure that all students are included so that they can thrive and achieve?

  3. Do we treat all parents, families, and whānau as valued and respected members of our school community? How do we know if our approaches are effective?

  4. How do we support parents, families, and whānau to understand the rights and responsibilities of all students?

Questions for school leaders
Seeking legal advice

Accessing legal advice

Boards of Trustees may wish to seek legal advice when responding to bullying incidents. Advice will be dependent on the specific circumstances involved.

School Boards of Trustees can contact the New Zealand School Trustees Association (NZSTA) for advice on any legal matters (including working with insurance lawyers).

NZSTA Helpdesk advisors can be contacted by:

Seeking legal advice

Resources and downloads

United Nations convention on the rights of the child (UNCROC) General Comment 13

This comment specifies the right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence.

Promoting the rights of children with disabilities

This international research paper from UNICEF promotes the rights of children with disabilities.

New Zealand Teachers Council code of ethics

The code of ethics is a public statement of the New Zealand teaching profession’s ethical principles and how these principles will be applied to promote standards of professional conduct.

School anti-violence toolkit (2012)

This resource, developed by the New Zealand Post Primary Teachers‘ Association (PPTA) assists schools to develop and implement effective anti-violence policies, practices, and procedures.

Student led approaches (NZ) (video)
Fighting cyberbullying

"Online IS real life, we need to own our digital behaviour".

The Sticks'n'Stones project aims to support students to be positive digital citizens, to help those affected by cyberbullying and to encourage everyone not to be bystanders.

View transcript

Source: EdTalks (NZ)

Student led approaches (NZ)
Finding out if students feel safe

The best way to find out how safe students feel in school is to ask them directly.

Anonymous surveys can be useful, but they may not be an effective communication tool for some students.

Consider using:

  • surveys supported by simple graphics or symbols
  • matching activities, where students are presented with a range of cartoon images of a student being a target of bullying behaviour and are asked to identify those scenarios they have experienced or seen happening
  • role plays
  • video, including animated video, to tell personal stories
  • a continuum of smiley to sad faces for students to indicate how safe they feel during different parts of the school day (including travelling to and from school, when using their mobile phones, and online after school).
Finding out if students feel safe
Developing inclusive policies

Some students are at greater risk of being bullied than others

Many factors, such as differences in learning support needs, physical vulnerability, social skill challenges, and intolerant social environments can contribute to this increased risk. When developing bullying prevention policies, consider:

  1. how support for all students will be reflected in the policy

  2. how we will support all students to develop the skills they need as a bystander or target of bullying behaviour

  3. how we will evaluate the inclusiveness of our policies and processes and their development

  4. how individual needs and circumstances will be taken into consideration?

Developing inclusive policies
Supporting student collaboration

All students should have opportunities to contribute to the development of their school’s policies, and subsequent revisions of policies, on bullying prevention. They should also be actively involved in developing the strategies put in place to build students’ social competencies.

Using a Universal Design for Learning approach, barriers to participation should be identified and minimised and a range of ways for students to share experiences and recommendations should be offered to all.

Supporting student collaboration
Partnering with families (image)
girl on dads shoulder v1
Building strategies together

Work in close partnership with parents and whānau. They know their child’s strengths and needs. They can reinforce strategies their child can use to prevent and respond to any bullying behaviour that may occur.

Source: Adapted from Rich Johnson's image

Partnering with families

Resources and downloads

Digital technology: Safe and responsible use in schools

This guide provides information about the safe and responsible use and management of digital technology for boards of trustees, principals and staff. It outlines key aspects of the context surrounding the effective management of digital technology in schools and kura. Developed by Netsafe in partnership with the Ministry of Education.

Tools for schools: Developing a bullying prevention and response policy

Provides a step by step process for what to consider when developing policies and provides a sample policy

Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools

This guide was compiled to support schools to create safe and positive learning environments that help to prevent bullying and to provide practical advice on what to do when bullying occurs. It includes a section on whole-school approaches.

Wellbeing at school: Building a safe and caring school climate that deters bullying

This booklet is a summary of an extensive review of research and other literature undertaken to guide the development of the Wellbeing@School website.

School anti-violence toolkit (2012)

This resource, developed by the New Zealand Post Primary Teachers‘ Association (PPTA) assists schools to develop and implement effective anti-violence policies, practices, and procedures.

Leadership in the development of inclusive school communities

An overview in Leading Lights magazine, Edition 3, 2013, of the research of Dr Jude McArthur and others into the experiences of young people with additional learning needs in schools. Key themes are connected to what school leaders can do to develop their schools as inclusive communities.

Learning better together: Working towards inclusive education in New Zealand schools

This booklet published by the IHC outlines how inclusive education can work in practice in our schools. It gives specific guidance to schools on how to achieve better learning for all students in classrooms.

Self assessment survey for positive behavior support in schools

This is an example of a self assessment survey tool for school leaders, developed by www.pbis.org (Ross & Horner, 2010).

Sticks 'n Stones

Sticks ‘n Stones is a student led project managed by Central Otago REAP focused on taking positive action online to reduce Cyberbullying.

Wellbeing for success: a resource for schools

This Education Review Office (ERO) resource has been developed to help schools evaluate and improve student well-being. It highlights the need for systems, people, and initiatives to respond to wellbeing concerns for students who need additional support.

Managing complaints

It is the school’s responsibility to manage complaints appropriately, fairly, and consistently

Schools need to have a process in place to manage all complaints, including those about bullying. This process should be well publicised and include steps for acknowledging, investigating, and following up on complaints. Confidentiality is an important consideration when responding to complaints.

Managing complaints
Access to complaint processes (image)
http www.childnet.com ufiles flash tell.pdf
Design complaint processes that can be accessed by all students

Create a variety of complaints pathways that support all students to identify when they need support.

Source: Childnet International

Access to complaint processes
Complaint processes for all students

Luke was sent out of his Year 9 class on several occasions because he was “wound up”, but often these events were preceded by bullying out in the hallway or school grounds. He used his school’s official systems to challenge bullying when it happened and said that, while these could be effective, he was not always believed.

Adam described how some teachers did not always understand
his impairment, and he was very upset that one of his teachers would shout at him whenever he did something incorrectly.

Source: Learning better together: Working towards inclusive education in New Zealand schools
Complaint processes for all students
Planning for learner diversity (image)
3 principles of UDL based on the work of CAST Center of Applied Special Technologies
Take a Universal Design for Learning approach

Using a UDL approach underpins the development of more inclusive complaints processes that meet the varied needs of students.

Visit the UDL guide for more information.

Source: Adapted from CAST UDL

Planning for learner diversity
Increasing access and understanding

School bullying policies need to be widely advertised and readily accessible to all students, parents, family and whānau, and the wider community.

This means policies need to be:

  • presented in text using plain language and translated into the languages used by the school community, including New Zealand Sign Language
  • presented in text supported by graphics or photographs
  • permanently available in multiple formats (in hard copy print, in PDFs downloadable from the school’s website and as a page on the school’s website) 
  • shared regularly with the wider community through school notices, newsletters, and social media, such as school Facebook and Twitter pages.

A short video summarising the school’s bullying prevention policy supports community engagement and strengthens shared understanding.

Increasing access and understanding
Developing resources for families (image)
A graphic about opening emails from strangers
Home-school approach

Develop resources that families can use with their children at home.

Images and graphics can support understanding.

Source: Childnet International

Developing resources for families
Sharing resources with families

Introduce families to useful resources and agencies

  • Netsafe – New Zealand advice and information about cyberbullying
  • Cyberbullying advice and information in NZSL
  • Anti-bullying Alliance UK – Guidance for teachers and other professionals about children and young people with SEN and disabilities and cyberbullying
  • Childnet – UK organisation that provides practical advice and teaching activities in the STAR Toolkit to help educators explore e-safety with young people with ASD
Sharing resources with families
Planning for learner diversity (image)
3 principles of UDL based on the work of CAST Center of Applied Special Technologies
Take a Universal Design for Learning approach

Using a UDL approach underpins the development of more inclusive complaints processes that meet the varied needs of students.

Visit the UDL guide for more information.

Source: Adapted from CAST UDL

Planning for learner diversity
Fale Pasifika O Aoraki (NZ) (video)
A community takes action together

Fale Pasifika O Aoraki is working with other local agencies to enable parents to contribute to and actively take part in learning about bullying prevention.

A key feature of the project is the engagement of children, and using their voices in messaging for adults.

No captions or transcript available

Source: Fale Pasifika O Aoraki (NZ)

Fale Pasifika O Aoraki (NZ)

Resources and downloads

Cyberbullying advice and information

This Netsafe site provides information for young people, teachers, and parents about cyberbullying.

Cyberbullying advice and information NZSL

This video is a New Zealand Sign Language translation of Netsafe’s brochure about cyberbullying and advice for young people.

Cyberbullying and children and young people with SEN and disabilities: Guidance for teachers and other professionals

This module was developed to reduce the incidence and impact of bullying young people with additional needs in British schools.

STAR Toolkit: Practical advice and teaching activities to help educators explore e-safety with young people with ASD

This resource aims to equip, enable, and empower educators to support their learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when they are online.

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Responding to incidents of bullying behaviour

Responding effectively to a particular instance of bullying involves taking students’ individual circumstances and support needs into account – whether they are the targets or the initiators of bullying behaviour.

Develop a shared understanding of how agreed tools and approaches for assessing bullying incidents are used. Respond equitably.

Source: Rolltapeprodsltd (NZ)

No captions or transcript available

Suggestions and resources

Investigating incidents

Bullying incidents vary widely in their severity, impact on their target, and frequency. Most bullying behaviour is hidden from adults’ view, therefore all allegations need to be taken seriously and investigated thoroughly.

This means getting an understanding of:

  • exactly what happened 
  • considering what happened in relation to the definition of bullying behaviour
  • connecting with those who know the student well
  • implementing the school’s bullying prevention policies and processes.

The approach or disposition that a school or teacher brings to responding to bullying behaviour is critical – policies and processes alone are not enough.

Investigating incidents
Valuing the knowledge of families

Parents, family, and whānau of children play a key role in developing effective approaches to preventing and responding to bullying that will support their child and may also be beneficial to other students.

They will know their child’s strengths and learning and wellbeing needs and will be able to help reinforce strategies their child can use to prevent and respond to any bullying that may occur.

Valuing the knowledge of families
Influence of teacher disposition

The approach or disposition that a school or teacher brings to responding to bullying behaviour is critical – policies and processes alone are not enough.

Becky’s teacher was not able to see the boys’ role in bullying Becky. Instead it was assumed that it was some characteristic of Becky’s or her disability that caused her to be bullied and he recommended that Becky be referred to an educational psychologist for conflict management strategies. The boys’ behaviour went unquestioned in this school. Becky did not make the same mistake and saw the boys’ behaviour as unacceptable.

Source: Springboards 2 Practice: Enhancing effective practice in education. Davis & Watson, 2001, (page 675)

Influence of teacher disposition
School bullying assessment matrix (image)
Bullying matrix
A tool to support assessment processes

This matrix supports schools with managing complaints about bullying.

For more information about using the matrix, see p57 in, Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools.

Source: Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools

School bullying assessment matrix
Using the school bullying matrix

Most incidents of bullying behaviour can be appropriately responded to by students themselves, or by classroom or duty teachers. The matrix is intended only for incidents where a higher level of response is appropriate.

The Bullying Assessment Matrix (p57 of Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools) is intended to help guide a school’s response to a bullying incident. Schools could use it before referring to the quick reference guide. It is intended as a supporting resource and does not replace decisions based on professional judgment and experience, or schools’ policies and processes.

Using the school bullying matrix

Resources and downloads

Bullying prevention and response: A guide for schools

This guide was compiled to support schools to create safe and positive learning environments that help to prevent bullying and to provide practical advice on what to do when bullying occurs. It includes a section on whole-school approaches.

Bullying: How to prevent it and respond to it

This template for schools was developed by the Ministry of Education and the Bullying Prevention Advisory Group.

Accessing other agencies

In some instances of bullying behaviour, schools may need to seek input from agencies such as Child, Youth and Family (CYF) or the New Zealand Police.

The New Zealand School Trustees Association (NZSTA) has a memorandum of understanding with CYF.

If schools are unsure whether a bullying incident requires further investigation by these agencies they should:

  • seek advice from their school community officer (New Zealand Police)
  • contact the Child, Youth and Family Ed Assist line for schools
Accessing other agencies
Involving Child, Youth and Family

Schools should notify Child, Youth and Family if they believe a child or young person may be unsafe, in danger of harm, or suffering from ill-treatment, abuse, or neglect.

Signs to look for in children and young people:

  • regular unexplained absences or a lack of engagement in school
  • poor social skills such as being withdrawn, bullying, or being bullied, or relationship difficulties
  • behaviour that is affecting their learning and/or the learning of others
  • uncharacteristic changes in their achievement or behaviour.

Possible indications that families and whānau may need support:

  • parents seem stressed or not coping
  • family or whānau are isolated and without any support networks
  • there are indications of drug or alcohol problems
  • there is family violence
  • there are mental health issues that are affecting the care of children.
Involving Child, Youth and Family

Resources and downloads

Prevention first

This New Zealand Police programme provides a framework for understanding and responding to issues that may lead to criminal activities.

School policies and procedures

School policies and procedures for dealing with bullying behaviour should apply also to cyberbullying

Policies and procedures should make specific mention of cyberbullying and set out clear prevention and response strategies, such as promoting digital citizenship and responding to cyberbullying.

Bullying prevention programmes often include specific strategies for preventing and responding to cyberbullying. There can be considerable overlap between bullying that occurs in the physical environment and bullying behaviour that occurs in the online environment.

School policies and procedures
Supporting students

What to do when a student reports being cyberbullied

  1. Support the student being bullied and give reassurance that they have done the right thing by telling someone about the incident.

  2. Refer to any existing pastoral support or procedures that are in place within your school and inform the students’ parents or carers.

  3. Make sure you are familiar with your school’s policy on bullying as cyberbullying should be dealt with in the same way.

  4. Work closely with the student to ascertain the support they need and to agree on a course of action. This enables the young person to feel in control of the process.

  5. Discuss and draw up a plan of action with the student involved, in a way that is meaningful for them.

Source: Childnet STAR Toolkit

Supporting students
Creating an action plan

Next steps – how to create a plan of action 

  • Advise your student to save the evidence and not to retaliate.
  • Advise them how they can block people and how to use their privacy settings. 
  • Investigate the incident and keep a record. If necessary, take steps to identify the person displaying the bullying behaviour.
  • Take action to contain the incident when content has been circulated. Steps may include:
    • asking the person responsible to take the content down
    • reporting the content online yourself
    • contacting NETSAFE for professional advice
    • considering disciplinary powers to confiscate devices that are being used to cyberbully
    • contacting the police if the law has been broken.
  • Work with the young person displaying the bullying behaviour. It is important to support the young person who has bullied and to look at the possible causes for their behaviour. For example, they may have been bullied themselves, or may not understand how their behaviour and actions have affected others.

Source: Childnet STAR Toolkit

Creating an action plan

Resources and downloads

Digital technology: Safe and responsible use in schools

This guide provides information about the safe and responsible use and management of digital technology for boards of trustees, principals and staff. It outlines key aspects of the context surrounding the effective management of digital technology in schools and kura. Developed by Netsafe in partnership with the Ministry of Education.

Cyberbullying advice and information

This Netsafe site provides information for young people, teachers, and parents about cyberbullying.

Cyberbullying advice and information NZSL

This video is a New Zealand Sign Language translation of Netsafe’s brochure about cyberbullying and advice for young people.

Cyberbullying and children and young people with SEN and disabilities: Guidance for teachers and other professionals

This module was developed to reduce the incidence and impact of bullying young people with additional needs in British schools.

STAR Toolkit: Advice

This resource aims to equip, enable, and empower educators to support their learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when they are online.

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Building a world-leading education system that equips all New Zealanders with the knowledge, skills, and values to be successful citizens in the 21st century.