Welcome to Inclusive Education.


Deaf or hard of hearing students and learning

http://inclusive.tki.org.nz/guides/deafness-or-hard-of-hearing-and-learning/

Differences in hearing will influence how a student gathers and processes aural information. 

This guide supports teachers to review and adjust their classrooms to make them more effective for communication and social interactions and to develop successful strategies to facilitate learning.

This guide focuses on areas for specific support and on whole-class strategies that benefit all students. It includes links to in-depth resources.

Information about Deaf culture and hearing differences

For Deaf students and those who are Hard of Hearing, their experience of the aural world will be unique. Each student will also have a wide range of strengths, interests, and areas where they need support across the curriculum.

Benazir, a student from Christchurch, shares her story in The Best of Both Worlds.

Source: van Asch Deaf Education Centre (NZ)

Suggestions and resources

About the Deaf community

Deaf culture is the shared social beliefs, behaviours, traditions, history and values of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing community. Some of these cultural aspects are a function of using a visual language rather than an oral one.

Members typically view deaf as a difference in human experience rather than as a disability and they use sign language to communicate. Members write the word deaf with a capital D (sometimes referred to as the “big D Deaf” in speech and sign). 

“Deaf people form a distinct community with its own culture. Sign language is the glue that binds that culture together.”
Deaf Aotearoa New Zealand

The small d is used in reference to differences in hearing, such as in “He is deaf.” 

About the Deaf community
Degrees of hearing loss

In a medical context, "hearing loss" is the term used to distinguish differences in how much a person can hear. 

In New Zealand, the four degrees of hearing loss are:

  • profound
  • severe
  • moderate
  • mild.

What are the different degrees of hearing loss? – explains these levels of hearing loss and how they affect a person’s hearing.

Effects of various types of hearing loss – explains the different types of hearing loss: conductive, sensorineural, and mixed.

Degrees of hearing loss
Auditory processing disorder

Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central deafness, is a hearing disorder that affects how the brain processes speech. While the ear “hears” sound normally, people with APD find it difficult to process sounds and to understand what they have heard.

Diagnosis requires specialised testing. Many children remain undiagnosed.

Source: National Foundation for the Deaf

Auditory processing disorder

Resources and downloads

Deaf community

Information from Deaf Aotearoa New Zealand, includes deaf culture and history.

Communicating with a Deaf person

Fact sheet from Deaf Aotearoa New Zealand.

Recognising changes in hearing

This National Health Board of New Zealand booklet (2010) lists some possible indications of hearing loss. For children aged three years and older, these include:

  1. slower speech compared with other children of a similar age

  2. talking loudly

  3. listening to television at a louder volume

  4. shorter attention span

  5. difficulty following instructions and understanding verbal questions

  6. limited participation in incidental conversation.

Recognising changes in hearing
Indicators of APD

Signs of APD may include:

  1. difficulty understanding and remembering what people say unless it is clear and simple

  2. difficulty hearing in noisy settings

  3. extreme tiredness after school

  4. learning problems with language, spelling, vocabulary, reading, or writing.

Source: National Foundation for the Deaf

Indicators of APD

Resources and downloads

Hearing loss

Information about how to detect hearing loss early and what services are available. This page from the Ministry of Health website contains downloadable PDFs in Samoan, Tongan, Cook Island Māori and English.

A student perspective (video)
Hearing impairment in mainstream class: Rosie's world

Through understanding Rosie's world, we examine strategies and communication supports in an inclusive classroom.

View transcript

Source: TAG (UK)

A student perspective
Differences in impact

Every situation and every student is different

Different types of hearing loss can affect language development and concepts, communication and social interactions to varying degrees. Students may have:

  • experienced limited or intermittent access to the sounds of oral language
  • missed out on the early language learning foundations they need to learn and achieve.

Students may rely on visual cues, technology such as cochlear implants and FM systems, or use a mix of New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL), speech and writing, as well as speech to communicate.

Differences in impact
Challenges and teaching approaches (image)
Deaf
Every situation and every student is different

How hearing loss can influence learning summarises some of the challenges students experience at school, and outlines teaching opportunities to support learning.

Students who are deaf or hard of hearing: A resource for educators examines how being deaf or hard of hearing can influence learning and provides strategies teachers can use in the classroom.

Source: Ministry of Education

Challenges and teaching approaches
Deaf culture (video)
Interaction with other deaf people is important

Deaf students benefit from being educated in inclusive settings, but it is also important for them to have opportunities to interact socially with other deaf people. Experts explain why, and share ideas for connecting deaf students to Deaf culture both within and outside school.

View transcript

Source: Learn NC

Deaf culture
Language and literacy (video)
Visual phonics

Deafness can affect a student’s development of language, and the way the student may write and speak. Visual phonics is a tool that helps students visualise sound.

View transcript

Source: Learn NC

Language and literacy

Resources and downloads

Students who are deaf or hard of hearing: A resource for educators

This Ministry of Education booklet examines how being deaf or hard of hearing can influence learning and provides strategies teachers can use in the classroom.

How hearing loss can influence learning

A summary of the challenges students experience at school and an outline of teaching opportunities to support learning. A Ministry of Education publication.

Back to top

Identifying needs and strengths, and accessing support

Get to know the whole student – their interests, experiences, family/whānau, language background, ways that support their engagement and participation in learning, and individual learning strengths and needs. 

Identify topics, ideas, activities and images that engage the student and build these into your lesson plans.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Suggestions and resources

Utilise digital technologies (NZ) (video)
Ko wai au - Who am I? See my voice?

These rangatahi explain in Māori, NZ Sign Language, and English, the meaning behind the digital photographs they have chosen to represent something that inspires them.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Utilise digital technologies (NZ)
Sample learner profile (image)
Learner profile
Who am I?

A learner profile can be created in any format including:

  • a document with photos
  • a slide presentation with a series of pictures
  • a video
  • a blog.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Sample learner profile
Benefits of learner profiles

It’s useful to develop a profile of all of your students, and to use this as the basis of a class profile. 

A learner profile tells teachers about students. It sits alongside assessment data. It helps school staff to build relationships with students and to understand things from a student perspective. This can inform planning, classroom layout, timetabling, and supports to enable students to participate and contribute in all classroom learning.

Developing a learner profile means your students can:

  • express who they are
  • address assumptions
  • express their aspirations and passions
  • have a say in what goes on for them.

Senior students may prefer to just have a conversation. Take time to get the student’s views of what will support their learning.

Benefits of learner profiles
What to include in a learner profile

The purpose of a learner profile can be agreed by the student, their whānau, and the teacher.

Depending on its purpose, a useful profile (whether an official document or simply inquiry on your part) can include:

  1. important people

  2. cultural connections and experiences

  3. languages used

  4. things the student is good at

  5. memorable life experiences

  6. how they like to unwind and relax

  7. likes and interests

  8. dislikes and things they avoid

  9. how they like to learn and what helps

  10. things that make it hard for them to learn

  11. what they do when they need help.

What to include in a learner profile
Surveying students

In the video Student Profiles, Canadian secondary teacher Naryn Searcy describes how she asks students about how they learn most effectively. She also asks students what is important to them beyond school.

She uses this information in her planning:

"I personally do a survey at the beginning of every class every semester, just everything from personal background to their history in the subject area to things they like to do outside of school, usually put a whole bunch of activities down there that we would potentially do in the class and ask them to rank it, you know what would you enjoy doing, what would you not like doing.

So just to get an idea of who is in the classroom to begin with and what they would benefit, or what they want to see in the class, what would work for them."

Source: UDL supporting diversity in BC schools (Canada)

Surveying students

Resources and downloads

Rachel's learner profile (NZ high school)

An example of a secondary student’s learner profile.

Laiza’s transition

An example of a primary school student’s learner profile, developed by the adults around her.

Developing learner profiles

This document provides general support and guidance when developing a learner profile. It includes prompts and questions, along side purpose and benefits for students.

About me

This learner profile template is a companion to "Developing learner profiles". It is an interactive PDF with questions for students to answer.

Most effective when used together

A family shares communication strategies (video)
Who am I? Colin’s family

A family share their strategies for communicating and interacting with their Deaf son.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: National Deaf Children’s Society (UK)

A family shares communication strategies
Suggestions to support partnership

Suggestions for working together with parents, caregivers and whānau

  1. Communicate and share information in a meaningful way, demonstrating understanding and support for parents’ concerns.

  2. Value what parents and caregivers have noticed or assessments they have had done outside school.

  3. Involve parents and caregivers in determining strategies to support student learning and well-being.

  4. Work with any programmes or materials they are using at home, to maximise consistency and support for the student.

  5. Develop systems for passing on information about a student’s needs, progress and next steps in ways that are meaningful.

  6. Share information about out-of-school programmes (for example, classes or groups for music, art, debating or sport).

  7. Actively and regularly communicate positive information and achievements to the family.

Suggestions to support partnership
Questions to ask parents

Connect with the family to understand the strengths and needs of students.

Practical elements:

  • the language/s used at home
  • medications and allergies
  • equipment used at home
  • what they do at home to support learning.

Student’s likes and dislikes:

  • likes, interests, what they’re good at, need help with, can do independently
  • dislikes, what can upset them, how they express this, calming skills
  • favourites (TV programmes, hobbies, books, songs, sports).

The people in the student’s life:

  • parent and whānau hopes and priorities
  • important people in the student’s life
  • best methods and times to communicate with the family
  • professionals working with the family
  • questions they have and support they would like from the school.
Questions to ask parents
Involving families in transitions at high school (NZ) (video)
Learning from each other

John Robinson, HoD Learning Support, Onslow College, reflects on working in partnership with families. He describes the benefits of developing online learner profiles and sharing knowledge.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: Ministry of Education, inclusive education videos (NZ)

Involving families in transitions at high school (NZ)
Elements of a successful collaborative partnership (video)
Collaboration supports student success

The success of a deaf student in an inclusive classroom is dependent upon the contributions of a number of people, including the classroom teacher, the student, the teacher of the deaf, the student’s family members, school administrators, and the interpreter.

View transcript

Source: Learn NC

Elements of a successful collaborative partnership

Resources and downloads

New Zealand Federation for Deaf Children Inc.

A website created by The New Zealand Federation for Deaf Children. It includes videos, access to specialist support and practical tips and strategies for families.

Family/whānau file

A booklet published by the Ministry of Education to help parents of students with additional needs to brief their child’s school.

The family book: Te pukapuka o nga whānau

An introduction to services and supports for families and whānau of children who are hard of hearing.

Utilising the SMS and e-Portfolios (NZ) (video)
Sharing knowledge

John Robinson, HoD Learning Support, Onslow College, reflects on the impact of using the school management system and e-Portfolios to build a shared understanding of student strengths and needs.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: Ministry of Education, inclusive education videos (NZ)

Utilising the SMS and e-Portfolios (NZ)
Working as a team

Suggestions for an effective partnership with the learning support coordinator and Resource Teacher of the Deaf

  1. Share your concerns, questions and ideas.

  2. Take an inquiry approach: discuss assessment approaches, evaluate assessment data together, and consider possible strategies and approaches.

  3. Meet together with the student and whānau and take a team approach to planning and providing support.

  4. Find out about other staff members who have experience teaching students with deafness or hearing impairment, or a personal experience, who might be happy to advise you.

  5. Ask about recommended resources and online communities.

Working as a team
Gathering data

Gathering data to personalise learning

To help you to personalise their learning, build a picture of the student’s:

  1. language and communication skills

  2. literacy skills

  3. numeracy skills

  4. successful learning strategies

  5. ability to act independently

  6. social skills and ability to form relationships.

Gathering data
Teaching as inquiry

Be a learner as well as a teacher

Inquire into and reflect on the impact of your practice and actions.

  1. What is important (and therefore worth spending time on), given where my student is at?

  2. What strategies (evidence-based) are most likely to help my student to learn this?

  3. What has happened as a result of my teaching and what will I need to do next?

Teaching as inquiry

Resources and downloads

The importance of collaboration

In this video, interviews and classroom footage address the elements of a successful collaborative partnership among student, teacher, family, and teacher of the deaf. From Learn NC (USA); transcript provided.

Teaching and learning NZSL (image)
thumbsup logo
New Zealand Sign Language

Thumbs Up! An Introduction to New Zealand Sign Language supports teaching and learning NZSL as an additional language in English-medium schools for students in years 7–8 working at curriculum levels 1 and 2.

Source: NZSL (NZ)

Teaching and learning NZSL
Resource Teachers of the Deaf

Resource Teachers of the Deaf (RTDs) work alongside students who attend their local school, the student's classroom teacher, as well as with their family and whānau.

In New Zealand, two Deaf Education Centres offer resources and support:

Your student may also receive support from:

  • Ruamoko Marae – the Deaf marae on the grounds of Kelston Deaf Education Centre in Auckland
  • Tuawera – the whare wanaka located at van Asch Deaf Education Centre in Christchurch
Resource Teachers of the Deaf
Community agencies

There are a number of New Zealand organisations and resources that provide support for Deaf learners and those who are Hard of Hearing, as well as providing advice for teachers and families:

  1. Deaf Aotearoa

  2. Magnet – for Deaf and hard of hearing youth

  3. New Zealand Federation for Deaf Children

Community agencies
NZ books in NZSL

Some of the Ready to Read series is available in NZSL, and Hairy Maclary from Donaldson’s Dairy is available as an interactive QBook with NZSL.

  1. Tim's costume – Ready to Read series

  2. Hairy MacLary from Donaldson's Dairy Qbook 

NZ books in NZSL
Hearing aids, loop systems and FM technology (image)
Sound loop icon
Systems for reducing background noise

These systems consist of a microphone, which the teacher or speaker wears, that transmits their voice wirelessly to a receiver in the child’s hearing aids and/or cochlear implants.

Information on public listening systems.

Source: Pixabay

Hearing aids, loop systems and FM technology

Resources and downloads

Free NZSL learning portal

Learn NZSL is a free learning portal on New Zealand Sign Language. Watch, learn and practise how to use NZSL in common situations.

Resources from Deaf Aotearoa New Zealand

Online videos and other resources available for learning NZSL and about the Deaf Culture.

The online dictionary of New Zealand Sign Language

A multimedia, multilingual reference tool. You can search by: English/Māori word, visual features of the sign and more.

Supporting children who are deaf and hard of hearing

Information on the support available from the Advisers on Deaf Children (AoDCs) and Resource Teachers of the Deaf (RTDs). Links to their websites and phone numbers are included.

The Toolbox

A collection of online video clips supporting young Deaf People aged 16-24.

The cochlear implant school toolkit: Teachers

Information, tips, and strategies to help teachers to include and support a child with a cochlear implant to succeed in the classroom. It contains three sections: preparing for school-entry, challenging situations, after school-entry.

Assistive listening systems: A guide for architects and consultants

An assistive listening system is a wireless link directly between the sound source and the hearing impaired person. The direct link to the listener eliminates the effects of background noise and reverberation, providing some amplification and improving clarity. The three types of systems: electromagnetic loop, infrared communication, FM radio communication are described and reviewed.

Back to top

Supporting communication, thinking, and social interaction

Deaf students and those who are Hard of Hearing will experience some barriers to communication and social interactions. Identify their needs as soon as possible so that you can plan tailored support for your student.

Sam’s story – “I feel that I can do anything if I really want to.” 12-year-old Sam shares his story. 

Source: Sam, van Asch Education Centre (NZ)

Suggestions and resources

Tips from students (video)
Top 5 tips for communicating with Deaf young people

Improving communication in the classroom – a student perspective.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: Biomation Productions C.I.C. (UK)

Tips from students
Using visuals and technologies

Supporting understanding with visuals and technologies

Communication (including speech and language) is essential to sharing and making sense of knowledge and information.

As every student will process and perceive information differently, support communication using a range of communication modes:

  • text
  • speech
  • movement
  • illustration
  • storyboards
  • video and online tools.

Also ensure that all students understand the task before they start working. Breaking the task into manageable chunks can support understanding.

It is important to note that language delay may not reflect a student’s cognitive skills or ability to learn.

Using visuals and technologies
Ideas for communicating instructions

Ideas for communicating instructions and information

  1. All teachers could benefit from learning some sign language.

  2. Use a range of visual learning materials such as handouts, YouTube clips, pictures, posters, and diagrams that include titles and keywords.

  3. Make eye contact with students to increase connection. Look at students when speaking.

  4. Rephrase, but don’t repeat. Some words can be more difficult to lip-read than others.

  5. Display instructions and information such as new vocabulary as the lesson progresses.

  6. Speak a little slower and group words into phrases. Use acoustic highlighting (emphasis on a key word) to support information processing.

  7. Stop the class and make sure the child is looking at you, before giving instructions.

  8. Be aware of situations when the student will not be able to lip-read and prepare beforehand. For example, if using a slide show or video with the lights out, consider using a captioned video, providing a transcript, or seating the student next to someone able to take notes. Also use the learner’s FM system.

Ideas for communicating instructions
Optimising the physical environment

Suggestions to support communication through classroom organisation

  1. Offer the student a place near the front of the room with good visual access to the teacher, and at the side where they can see the majority of students’ faces.

  2. During group activities, encourage the student to watch the faces of the other students when they speak and sit in a semi-circle.

  3. Sit students away from air conditioners, open doors or windows or other high-noise areas.

  4. Provide a seat where the student is facing away from a light source. It is difficult to speech read or see other visual cues when looking into the light.

  5. Invite the student to video those giving class presentations, so they can zoom in to the speaker’s face.

  6. Use a sound field system.

  7. Lip reading requires intense concentration and can be tiring. Organise your classroom programme to provide relief from this intensity.

Optimising the physical environment

Resources and downloads

Communicating with a Deaf person

Fact sheet from Deaf Aotearoa New Zealand.

Communication tips from Deaf Aotearoa New Zealand

Tips on communicating with Deaf people more easily.

Deafness, self-esteem, and the inclusive classroom

Classroom teachers, researchers and resource teachers share strategies for an inclusive classroom in this video from Learn North Carolina.

Teaching deaf students in the inclusive classroom: Part 1

Teachers and experts share strategies that support success in an inclusive classroom in this video from Learn NC (USA). Transcript available.

Teaching deaf students in the inclusive classroom – part 2

Teachers and experts share strategies that support success in an inclusive classroom in this video from Learn NC (USA). Transcript available.

Deafness, language, and literacy

Easily-implemented strategies for working with students who use interpreters, hearing aids, and cochlear implants in this video from Learn North Carolina.

Modes of communication: Interpreters, hearing aids, and cochlear implants

Teachers and experts share strategies that support success in an inclusive classroom.

The importance of collaboration

In this video, interviews and classroom footage address the elements of a successful collaborative partnership among student, teacher, family, and teacher of the deaf. From Learn NC (USA); transcript provided.

Resources from Deaf Aotearoa New Zealand

Online videos and other resources available for learning NZSL and about the Deaf Culture.

NZSL dictionary app on Google Play store

The New Zealand Sign Language dictionary is available as a free app for android devices.

NZSL dictionary app on iTunes store

The New Zealand Sign Language dictionary is available as a free app for iOS devices.

Hints and tips for teachers with Deaf or hearing impaired students in their classrooms

The NZ Federation for Deaf children have created, this PowerPoint, which provides practical tips for teachers on communication and inclusion, and explains personal FM systems.

Graphic organisers (image)
Using graphic organisers
Visual frameworks

To support students in their planning and thinking, offer a range of graphic organisers and mind mapping tools when setting tasks. Consider offering options that can be printed or accessed digitally in Word or PowerPoint, and online tools such as Popplet.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Graphic organisers
Using manipulative objects (video)
Teaching Deaf students in the inclusive classroom

Using manipulative objects supports students to make connections.

View transcript

Source: Learn NC (US)

Using manipulative objects
Using Google Docs (NZ) (video)
Improving boys’ writing using Google Docs

Use of an online tool supporting structure, reflection and collaboration (clip taken from a longer video).

View transcript

Source: Enabling e-Learning (NZ)

Using Google Docs (NZ)
Improving organising skills

Suggestions for supporting students’ organisational and processing skills

  1. Label key areas of the classroom and resources with visual and text labels.

  2. Use charts, visual calendars, colour-coded schedules, visible timers, and visual cues to increase the predictability of regular activities, transitions between environments and activities, and changes in discussion topics.

  3. Make graphic organisers and flow charts available to support breaking tasks into chunks, and thinking and planning in all curriculum areas.

  4. Highlight patterns, critical features, big ideas and relationships using visuals, mind maps, 3-D manipulatives, outlines, flow charts and real objects.

  5. Give students multiple opportunities to engage with new ideas in a range of contexts.

  6. Pace content delivery. Give students time to process and integrate information from multiple sources – displays, interpreters, written instructions, the teacher.

Improving organising skills
Pre-teaching the rules of games (image)
Students playing a classroom game
Participation in new games and activities

Consider pre-teaching the rules and instructions for games to students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Support communication with visuals and symbols.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Pre-teaching the rules of games
Supporting belonging and confidence

Social support and The New Zealand Curriculum

Co-construct classroom culture and ways of interacting and participating to help create a strong sense of belonging and confidence. Provide opportunities for students to:

  1. develop a range of communication skills and strategies that they can use in different environments and situations, and reflect on their impact

  2. develop vocabulary that describes feelings and emotions

  3. express what they know and share their experiences in ways that work for them

  4. contribute personal interests, strengths and culture, and take the lead in discussions and group activities.

Source: Deafness and hearing impairment – A resource for educators

Supporting belonging and confidence
Valuing diversity

Suggestions for demonstrating that student diversity is valued

  1. Organise classroom visits and presentations from community members who are deaf or hard of hearing so that they can be role models and stimulate classroom discussion about hearing differences, how to communicate clearly, and why it is important to value difference.

  2. Celebrate New Zealand Sign Language week.

  3. Introduce basic signs into everyday communication throughout the school.

  4. Use your knowledge of the student’s interests, strengths and culture to create opportunities for the student to take a leadership role.

Valuing diversity
Support student-to-student communication

Model, discuss, and support effective communication between students

These three videos from the illustrate authentic student-based role-plays modelling appropriate ways to communicate in the classroom and the playground.

Source: Victorian Deaf Education Institute

Support student-to-student communication
Building self-esteem (video)
Description

A deaf student surrounded by hearing peers in an inclusive classroom may experience feelings of isolation. Teachers play a critical role in supporting a deaf student’s self-esteem and sense of belonging within the culture of the classroom.

View transcript

Source: Learn NC

Building self-esteem

Resources and downloads

Deafness, self-esteem, and the inclusive classroom

Classroom teachers, researchers and resource teachers share strategies for an inclusive classroom in this video from Learn North Carolina.

Captions and subtitles with Facebook video

Information on how to add closed captions to Facebook videos.

Back to top

Using whole-class strategies to support students who are deaf or hard of hearing, years 1–6

Take a look at your learning environment, including your teaching strategies, assessment processes, materials and the ways you design learning opportunities. Consider how it feels and works for students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Teaching deaf students in the inclusive classroom - Part 2 outlines a range of strategies that support success for all students in an inclusive classroom.

Source: LEARN NC (US)

Suggestions and resources

Using a UDL approach (image)
3 principles of UDL based on the work of CAST Center of Applied Special Technologies2
UDL principles

UDL can help teachers plan for the diversity in their classrooms. It provides guidelines for  building in flexibility and options for learners, and removing hidden barriers that may inhibit learning.


Visit the UDL guide for more information.

Source: Adapted from CAST

Using a UDL approach
Design to include Deaf culture (video)
Support spatial awareness and orientation.

Design and plan your space to include students who are Deaf and hard of hearing. This video explores, space, light, visual supports, and touch.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: Derrick Behm (US)

Design to include Deaf culture
Visibly value students cultural backgrounds (image)
File 000 2
Create a sense of belonging

Visually reflect the different cultures of your school community within the environment through language, signs and images.

Source: Kelston School

Visibly value students cultural backgrounds
Ready to Read ebooks, and NZSL songs (image)
Ready to Read school readers
Description

Selected Ready to Read titles are available as e-books.

Te Reo Singalong in NZSL waiata are sung in Māori and signed with NZSL. They are captioned in English and Māori.

Increase opportunities for all students to learn New Zealand Sign Language.

Source: Ministry of Education

Ready to Read ebooks, and NZSL songs
Supporting teaching and learning (NZ) (video)
Experiences of Deaf and hearing impaired students

Vivita Rabo, teacher of the Deaf at Mission Heights Junior College talks about her research into the perspectives and experiences of Deaf and hearing impaired students in mainstream schooling.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: EDtalks

Supporting teaching and learning (NZ)

Resources and downloads

Personalised learning pathways in an ILE

The learning pathways at Ormiston Primary School enable students to work at their own pace and connect with teachers as they need to. The approach is inclusive of the needs of Deaf learners.

Tiredness in deaf children

This article explains how tiredness and fatigue are common issues for deaf children. It includes tips for dealing with concentration fatigue.

ESOL teaching strategies

ESOL teaching strategies from the ESOL online website on TKI.

Everyone's In: An inclusive planning tool

This planning tool has been developed for teachers by the Ministry of Education. It is designed to assist with developing a classroom curriculum that works for all students, from the outset.

Problem-solving at Stonefields School (NZ) (video)
Supporting collaboration and resilience

Support students to develop strategies for “getting out of the pit” when they get stuck in their learning.

View transcript

Source: Stonefields School (NZ)

Problem-solving at Stonefields School (NZ)
Suggestions for building confidence
  1. Consider the use of New Zealand Sign Language in class.

  2. Ask your student what helps them to learn (for example, text-to-speech or quiet spaces) and build their suggestions into your planning.

  3. Use your knowledge of the student’s interests, strengths and culture to create opportunities for them to take the lead.

  4. Identify classroom situations (for example, verbal instructions given from a distance) that may exclude some students. Provide alternatives.

  5. Recognise avoidance strategies and provide support and encouragement.

  6. Give ongoing prompts and positive feedback, and provide strategies that help students when they get stuck.

  7. Create a class culture where students support each other.

Suggestions for building confidence
Selecting flexible learning materials (image)
RTR sign language app
Personalising learning

Consider introducing students to materials they can adjust to suit their preferences.

The digital Ready to Read series offers students a range of options to support access to the text, including NZSL and text-to-speech.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Selecting flexible learning materials
Timely personalised feedback (image)
Teacher and students working in a small group
Learning conversations

Increase regular opportunities for one-to-one and small group interactions with students to support more personalised conversations about learning.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Timely personalised feedback
Reduce noise levels (video)
Involve students in problem solving

Consider how to minimise unnecessary classroom noise such as chair drag, which affects students’ ability to hear. You can monitor classroom sound levels using a safe sound indicator.

No captions or transcript available

Source: Stephen Heppell

Reduce noise levels

Resources and downloads

Communicating with a Deaf person

Fact sheet from Deaf Aotearoa New Zealand.

Tim’s costume – Ready to Read

Some of the Ready to Read series is available in NZSL as apps for iPhone and iPad

iTunes preview: Hairy Maclary from Donaldson's Dairy

This book is available as an interactive QBook. It has video narration in three sign languages; NZSL, AUSLAN, and ASL.

Communication tips from Deaf Aotearoa New Zealand

Tips on communicating with Deaf people more easily.

Increasing access and options

Ideas for presenting and sharing content and instructions in more than one way

  1. Take a multisensory approach – use real experiences, physical activity and manipulables to support understanding.

  2. Support text and spoken information with photos, graphics, audio and video.

  3. Present digital text rather than printed text so that students can personalise it (for example, by enlarging it or listening to it).

  4. Use blogs, wikis and online tools such as Moodle to bring together different versions of content in one place (for example, a YouTube video, a graphic and some text).

  5. Make instructions, demonstrations, or key content rewindable and accessible 24/7.

Increasing access and options
Introducing closed captions (image)
Screen shot showing captions on website
Turn on the closed captions (cc)

Viewing videos with closed captions provides support for students who are deaf or hard of hearing, learning a second langauge and students that need support with comprehension.

Source: Department of Conservation (NZ)

Introducing closed captions
Finding videos with closed captions

How to find YouTube videos with accurate closed captions using your laptop or desk top computer

  1. Search for YouTube and open the home page

  2. Type search subject (for example, "frogs") into YouTube search bar and press return key

  3. On left of screen, click on the tab called “Filters” and a new window will open

  4. Select "Subtitles/CC" under the Features list

  5. Select a video from the selection of filtered videos presented by YouTube

  6. Watch the selected video with the closed captions turned on to check for accuracy before sharing with students

  7. Share closed captioned video with students

Finding videos with closed captions
Utilising text-to-speech tools (video)
Access options

For some students, listening to text on headphones can support engagement and understanding.

Explore this tutorial to find out how text-to-speech can be used in the classroom and at home.

View transcript

Source: Kit Hard (US)

Utilising text-to-speech tools
Finding videos with closed captions

How to find YouTube videos with closed captions using a laptop or desktop computer

  1. Search for YouTube and open the home page.

  2. Type search subject (for example “frogs”) into YouTube search bar and press return key.

  3. On left of screen, click the tab called “Filters” and a menu box will open.

  4. Select “subtitles/CC” under the Features list.

  5. Select a video from the selection of filtered videos presented by YouTube.

  6. Watch the selected video with the closed captions turned on to check for accuracy before sharing with students.

  7. Share closed captioned video with students.

Finding videos with closed captions

Resources and downloads

Ruaumoko: The rumbling voice

An interactive digital book telling the story of Rūaumoko, the god of earthquakes and volcanoes. This narration is supported by text and audio in Te Reo Māori and English. The digital book is available from iTunes (apple) and Google Play (android).

Hints and tips for teachers with Deaf or hearing impaired students in their classrooms

The NZ Federation for Deaf children have created, this PowerPoint, which provides practical tips for teachers on communication and inclusion, and explains personal FM systems.

Environments to support thinking (NZ) (video)
Options at St Mary’s School, Mosgiel

Flexible learning environments enable students to adjust and adapt them to meet their needs.

Innovation in reducing distractions can lead to unique solutions.

View transcript

Source: EDtalks (NZ)

Environments to support thinking (NZ)
Supporting organisation skills

Suggestions for supporting students’ organisational and processing skills

  1. Label key areas of the classroom and resources with visual and text labels.

  2. Use charts, visual calendars, colour-coded schedules, visible timers and visual cues to increase the predictability of regular activities, transitions between environments and activities, and changes in discussion topics.

  3. Make graphic organisers and flow charts available to support breaking tasks into chunks, and thinking and planning in all curriculum areas.

  4. Highlight patterns, critical features, big ideas and relationships using visuals, mind maps, 3-D manipulatives, outlines, flow charts and real objects.

  5. Give students multiple opportunities to engage with new ideas in a range of contexts.

  6. Pace content delivery. Give students time to process and integrate information from multiple sources - displays, interpreters, written instructions, the teacher.

Supporting organisation skills
Preventing fatigue (image)
Student listening
Support listening

Listening for long periods can be hard work.

Keep teacher talk from the front of the room to a minimum and support it with visual materials.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Preventing fatigue
Using visuals at Silverstream School (NZ) (video)
Using visual timetables

Linda Ojala uses the same visuals in a whole range of contexts across her classroom. They are a key part of supporting students to know what is happening and organise themselves.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: Ministry of Education, inclusive education videos (NZ)

Using visuals at Silverstream School (NZ)
Supporting thinking
  1. Highlight patterns, critical features, big ideas and relationships using visuals, mind maps, 3-D manipulatives, outlines, flow charts and real objects.

  2. Give students multiple opportunities to engage with new ideas and concepts.

  3. Provide extra time for students to think and process before needing to respond in a discussion.

  4. Use mind maps to brainstorm ideas and make connections.

  5. Support group and class discussions with visual annotations to prompt later recall of key ideas.

  6. Offer students a variety of graphic organisers and flow charts to support thinking in all curriculum areas.

Supporting thinking

Resources and downloads

Time Timer (visual timer for visual people!)

For many students being able to see a visual representation of time passing can really support their time management. This video explains how time timer works.

Graphic Organizers

Advice about how to support students in the effective use of a variety of graphic organisers on the Resources for Teachers website.

Using digital collaborative tools (image)
Google Doc with student comments
Flexible collaboration

Offer students tools such as Google Docs that easily support 24/7 collaboration and timely feedback.

Explore built-in and add-on accessibility supports.

Source: Enabling e-Learning (NZ)

Using digital collaborative tools
Addressing complexity (image)
Students working with laptops
Give students the time they need to succeed

Consider reducing the quantity rather than the complexity of the learning.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Addressing complexity
Ways to show what you know (image)
A list of ways to show what you know
Encourage and value creativity

Discuss different ways students can demonstrate their thinking and learning.

Encourage the use of digital tools to support the collaborative process.

Source: For the teachers blog

Ways to show what you know
Minimising barriers

Suggestions for minimising barriers and optimising the environment for learning

  1. Set goals that enable students to demonstrate their understanding through multiple pathways.

  2. Offer students a range of options for expression: text, images, voice, video or a combination of media.

  3. Ensure that the “means” of showing understanding is not itself a barrier to success.

  4. If the “means” are a barrier for some students, use supports such as text-to-speech.

  5. Build supports (text to speech, online highlighters) into each learning activity and encourage students to select what they need.

  6. Encourage students to choose work environments that best suit their needs and the task (wearing noise-cancelling headphones, listening to music, a quiet space, working with a buddy, in a tuakana-teina partnership or in a collaborative group).

Minimising barriers
Supporting success in assessments

Discuss with students what support they need to demonstrate their understanding in assessments.

Consider:

  1. possible barriers hidden in the physical environment, for example: unfamiliar layout of room, lighting, temperature

  2. possible barriers hidden in the resources and materials, for example: cluttered presentation, hard-to-read diagrams, unclear layout, hard-copies only

  3. approaches to managing time allocations such as calendar tools and visual timers

  4. approaches to managing anxiety

  5. approaches to maintaining concentration

  6. negotiating breaks

  7. use of digital technologies such as text-to-speech and predictive text

  8. pre-teaching specific assessment/exam skills, such as how to approach multiple choice questions.

Supporting success in assessments

Resources and downloads

Different ways to publish your stories: Using a variety of tools

UK teacher Jacqui Sharp illustrates some of the ways students and teachers can present digital stories and inquiries, using many different tools.

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Using whole-class strategies to support students who are deaf or hard of hearing, years 7–13

Take a look at your classroom, including your teaching strategies, assessment processes, materials and the ways you construct learning tasks or opportunities. Consider how it feels and works for the students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Offer a wide variety of hands-on, immersive experiences to support learning.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Suggestions and resources

Using a UDL approach (image)
3 principles of UDL based on the work of CAST Center of Applied Special Technologies3
UDL principles

UDL can help teachers plan for the diversity in their classrooms. It provides guidelines for  building in flexibility and options for learners and removing hidden barriers that may inhibit learning.

Visit the UDL guide for information.

Source: Adapted from CAST

Using a UDL approach
Design to include Deaf culture (video)
Support spatial awareness and orientation.

Design and plan your space to include students who are Deaf and hard of hearing.  This video explores, space, light, visual supports and touch.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: Derrick Behm (US)

Design to include Deaf culture
Visibly value students cultural backgrounds (image)
File 000 3
Create a sense of belonging

Visually reflect the different cultures of your school community within the environment through language, signs and images.

Source: Kelston School

Visibly value students cultural backgrounds
Understanding the needs of deaf learners (NZ) (video)
Collaborate with experts

Diana Wilkes explains, the learning coaches from the Kelston Deaf Education Centre are part of their team. They collaborated to design a truly inclusive environment for successful learning.

Part of a longer video.  

 

Closed captioning available in player

Source: EDtalks

Understanding the needs of deaf learners (NZ)

Resources and downloads

Personalised learning pathways in an ILE

The learning pathways at Ormiston Primary School enable students to work at their own pace and connect with teachers as they need to. The approach is inclusive of the needs of Deaf learners.

Tiredness in deaf children

This article explains how tiredness and fatigue are common issues for deaf children. It includes tips for dealing with concentration fatigue.

ESOL teaching strategies

ESOL teaching strategies from the ESOL online website on TKI.

Everyone's In: An inclusive planning tool

This planning tool has been developed for teachers by the Ministry of Education. It is designed to assist with developing a classroom curriculum that works for all students, from the outset.

Supporting autonomy at high school (NZ) (video)
Customising access to learning – a student/teacher partnership

A student describes how his teacher works in partnership with him to provide a more effective learning environment.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: Enabling e-Learning (NZ)

Supporting autonomy at high school (NZ)
Building student confidence
  1. Ask your student what helps them to learn (for example, text-to-speech or quiet spaces) and build their suggestions into your planning.

  2. Use your knowledge of the student’s interests, strengths and culture to create opportunities for them to take the lead.

  3. Identify classroom situations (jokes, verbal instructions given from a distance) that may exclude some students. Provide alternative access or information.

  4. Recognise avoidance strategies and provide support and encouragement.

  5. Give ongoing prompts and positive feedback, and provide strategies that help students when they get stuck.

  6. Create a class culture where students support each other.

Building student confidence
Accessible learning materials (image)
A student adjusts the font on screen
Select learning materials students can personalise

Support participation by offering students digital materials they can independently adjust and personalise to suit their preferences.

Source: Enabling e-Learning (NZ)

Accessible learning materials
One-to one-interactions (image)
Students listening
Limit direct whole-class instruction

Increase regular opportunities for one-to-one and small group interactions to support more personalised conversations about learning.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

One-to one-interactions
Tips for school staff (video)
A Deaf student’s perspective

Zoe is a Deaf teenager attending high school, NZSL is Zoe's first language. She shares useful tips for staff across the school on making Deaf students feel included.

Closed captioning available in player

Source: bridget ferguson

Tips for school staff

Resources and downloads

Communicating with a Deaf person

Fact sheet from Deaf Aotearoa New Zealand.

Activate closed captions and subtitles on i-devices

Instructions for enabling and customising closed captioning on iOS.

Communication tips from Deaf Aotearoa New Zealand

Tips on communicating with Deaf people more easily.

Increasing access and options

Ideas for presenting and sharing content and instructions in more than one way

  1. Take a multisensory approach – use real experiences, physical activities and manipulables to support understanding.

  2. Support text and spoken information with photos, graphics, audio, and video.

  3. Present digital text rather than printed text so that students can personalise it (for example, by enlarging it or listening to it).

  4. Use blogs, wikis, and online tools such as Moodle to bring together different versions of content in one place (for example, a YouTube video, a graphic, and some text).

  5. Make instructions, demonstrations, or key content rewindable and accessible 24/7.

Increasing access and options
Utilise closed captions (image)
Captions on a video
Turn on the closed captions

Selecting videos with closed captions increases access for students who are deaf or hard of hearing, learning a second langauge, and those who need support with comprehension.

Source: Enabling e-Learning (NZ)

Utilise closed captions
Finding videos with closed captions

How to find YouTube videos with closed captions using a laptop or desktop computer

  1. Search for YouTube and open the home page

  2. Type search subject (for example “frogs”) into the YouTube search bar and press return key

  3. On left of screen, click the tab called “Filters” and a new window will open

  4. Select “subtitles/CC” under the Features list

  5. Select a video from the selection of filtered videos presented by YouTube

  6. Watch the selected video with the closed captions turned on to check for accuracy before sharing with students

  7. Share closed captioned video with students

Finding videos with closed captions
Utilising text-to-speech tools (video)
Introduce students to alternative ways of accessing text

For some students, listening to text on headphones can support access and increase engagement and understanding.

Explore this tutorial to find out how text-to-speech can be used in the classroom and at home.

View transcript

Source: Kit Hard (US)

Utilising text-to-speech tools
Finding videos with closed captions

How to find YouTube videos with closed captions using a laptop or desktop computer

  1. Search for YouTube and open the home page.

  2. Type search subject (for example “frogs”) into YouTube search bar and press return key.

  3. On left of screen, click the tab called “Filters” and a menu box will open.

  4. Select “subtitles/CC” under the Features list.

  5. Select a video from the selection of filtered videos presented by YouTube.

  6. Watch the selected video with the closed captions turned on to check for accuracy before sharing with students.

  7. Share closed captioned video with students.

Finding videos with closed captions
Environments to support thinking (image)
Student working in a personalised learning space
Supporting student preferences

Provide students with a range of flexible environments to support thinking.

Offer both quiet and collaborative spaces.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Environments to support thinking
Supporting organisation with visuals

Suggestions for supporting students’ autonomy and independence

  1. Label key areas of the classroom and resources with visual and text labels.

  2. Use charts, visual calendars, colour-coded schedules, visible timers and visual cues to increase the predictability of regular activities, transitions between environments and activities, and changes in discussion topics.

  3. Make graphic organisers and flow charts available to support breaking tasks into chunks and planning in all curriculum areas.

Supporting organisation with visuals
Preventing fatigue (image)
Bored girl
Reduce teacher talk from the front

Listening for long periods can be a barrier to engagement for some students.

Increase opportunities for students to direct and manage their own learning.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Preventing fatigue
Managing time and motivation (video)
Using visual timers

For many students, seeing a visual representation of time passing can really support their time management and increase motivation.

No captions or transcript available

Source: Time Timer (US)

Managing time and motivation
Supporting processing
  1. Pace content delivery. Give students time to process and integrate information from multiple sources - displays, interpreters, written instructions, the teacher.

  2. Give students multiple opportunities to engage with new ideas in a range of contexts.

  3. Highlight patterns, critical features, big ideas and relationships using visuals, mind maps, 3-D manipulatives, outlines, flow charts and real objects.

  4. Give students multiple opportunities to engage with new ideas and concepts.

  5. Provide extra time for students to think and process before needing to respond in a discussion.

  6. Use mind maps to brainstorm ideas and make connections.

  7. Support group and class discussions with visual annotations to prompt later recall of key ideas.

  8. Offer students a variety of graphic organisers and flow charts to support thinking in all curriculum areas.

Supporting processing

Resources and downloads

Graphic Organizers

Advice about how to support students in the effective use of a variety of graphic organisers on the Resources for Teachers website.

Using digital collaborative tools (image)
Google Doc with student comments
Flexible collaboration

Offer students tools such as Google Docs that easily support 24/7 collaboration and timely feedback.

Source: Enabling e-Learning (NZ)

Using digital collaborative tools
Increasing time allowances (image)
Working in a laboratory
Give students the time they need to succeed

Consider reducing the quantity rather than the complexity of the learning.

Source: Ministry of Education (NZ)

Increasing time allowances
Ways to show what you know (image)
A list of ways to show what you know
Encouraging and valuing creativity

Discuss with students different ways they can demonstrate their learning to meet success criteria.

Share exemplars in different media.

Source: For the teachers blog

Ways to show what you know
Minimising barriers to expression

Suggestions for minimising barriers and optimising supports for student expression

  1. Where possible, set goals that enable students to demonstrate their understanding through multiple pathways.

  2. Offer students a range of options for expression: text, images, voice, video, animation or a combination of media.

  3. Ensure that the “means” of showing understanding is not itself a barrier to success.

  4. If the “means” are a barrier for some students, use supports such as text-to-speech.

  5. Build supports (text to speech, online highlighters) into each learning activity at the outset and encourage students to select what they need.

  6. Encourage students to select work environments that best suit their needs and the task (for example, wearing noise-cancelling headphones, listening to music, working in a quiet corner, working with a buddy, in a tuakana-teina partnership or in a collaborative group).

Minimising barriers to expression
Supporting success in assessments

Discuss with students what support they need to demonstrate their understanding in assessments.

Consider:

  1. possible barriers hidden in the physical environment, for example: unfamiliar layout of room, lighting, temperature

  2. possible barriers hidden in the resources and materials, for example: cluttered presentation, hard-to-read diagrams, unclear layout, hard-copies only

  3. approaches to managing time allocations such as calendar tools and visual timers

  4. approaches to managing anxiety

  5. approaches to maintaining concentration

  6. negotiating breaks

  7. use of digital technologies such as text-to-speech and predictive text

  8. pre-teaching specific assessment/exam skills, such as how to approach multiple choice questions

  9. identify whether SAC application needs to be made for NCEA.

Supporting success in assessments

Resources and downloads

MyStudyBar

This is a free floating toolbar for Windows desktops and netbooks that provides a suite of portable open-source applications to support learning.

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Building a world-leading education system that equips all New Zealanders with the knowledge, skills, and values to be successful citizens in the 21st century.